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Unnecessary Blood Tests May Increase Anemia Levels- Reduce It Using Lab me
All clinical treatments and procedures are, somehow, associated with side effects of lesser or higher significance. The certain value of blood testing for both monitoring and diagnosis of disease is tempered by recognizing that constant blood testing causes blood loss of a specific level and can increase anemia levels which force patients to undergo red blood cell transfusion.
Fig: Unnecessary Blood Tests May Increase Anemia Levels
We also know this as either nosocomial anemia or iatrogenic anemia, we are going to discuss this side effect of lab testing in this post. Because of blood testing among the patients in hospitals, considerations are given to some of the pathological factors to determine if there is a clinical effect of that blood loss. We will discuss the strategies to reduce blood loss because of lab testing.
Why is it so important to discuss?
There is an incident of a 68-year-old woman who was hospitalized because she was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. After receiving antibiotics, her condition started to improve within 2 days. During her admission, her blood was drawn every day.
She complained fatigue on day 3 in the hospital. Her hematocrit and hemoglobin levels fell down on lab results on day 4. To ensure the validity of this result, her blood is drawn once again to conduct the test again. Her hemoglobin level dropped to the whopping level of 7.0 g/dL, i.e. 2g/dL lower than the day she got admitted and she ended up getting a transfusion.
She finally got her hemoglobin level stable on day 7, i.e. 8.5g/dL and she got discharged. On the morning when she was about to discharge, a nurse came to collect her blood samples. In the end, she asked, “Are all such blood tests important?”
Do doctors draw a lot of blood?
This is a very common case. Especially in providing critical care, a huge amount of blood is drawn. Due to this clinical uncertainty, physicians order more lab tests than actually, they need. However, these tests require more testing and checkups without having any major benefit to the patient. When blood test requires more testing, the hematocrit and hemoglobin levels fall in the patient. Ultimately, it causes the increment in anemia levels.
The physicians draw higher volumes of blood than the actual requirement by most testing guidelines. For each set of test, around 50 to 60 ml of blood is drawn. It is depending on the size of tubes, a possibility that test may need to conduct again. Hence, the multiple reagents may require for each test. Actually, around 3ml of blood is enough to perform most lab tests, even though tests have to be conducted again.
How Much Blood is lost due to Laboratory Testing?
Physicians working in CCU of a hospital based in New York were perplexed in the early 1970s by the frequency of mild anemia symptoms in patients when they got admitted in the hospital. According to them, this unexplained anemic reaction might be the cause of blood testing and test for the hypothesis. The study included the first attempt to assess blood loss because of blood testing. It is revealing the average loss of blood of 54 ± 17 mL on daily basis among their population of 93 patients in CCU.
According to Kruksall and Smoller, there was significant blood loss because of lab testing. In the mid of 1980s among the patients who were critically ill were compared to other admitted patients. They quantified blood collected from 100 patients retrospectively. While being admitted to a Boston-based hospital and discovered blood was sampled around 1.1 times per day. It is an average from ward patients but 3.4 times per day from patients admitted in intensive care units. The average blood loss was reported 12.4 mL on a day-to-day basis for the ward patients in comparison to 41.5 mL for patients in intensive care.
The approximate blood loss of the ward patients
Ward patients are losing around 175 mL during their hospital stay due to blood testing. The average loss is 762 mL in total for intensive care patients. Total loss of blood exceeded 1000 mL for 10 of 50 patients (i.e. around 20%). A potential blood sampling study of 1136 patients in 145 ICU units found that mean SD total volume of samples taken each day was 4.6 (3.2) and mean SD number of blood sampled was 41.1 mL per day.
The rest of all intensive care patients of 5% are losing of over 200mL and 0.7% suffering losses of around 600 mL during their intensive care stay. Blood gas analysis is the most widely demanded blood test among intensive care patients. Also, it's counting is around 40% of blood loss because of lab testing. According to a UK study, intensive care patients are going through blood gas testing 8 times per day. The test accounting is an average loss of 45 mL of blood. So, it is clear that unnecessary blood tests may cause higher anemia levels.
Clinical Impact in Adults
To discuss the blood losses in context, we need to consider the total blood volume, i.e. 70 mL/kg of body weight. Hence, an adult (weighing around 70 kg) has lost around 5 liters of blood in total. Blood cells also have a small lifespan, i.e. red blood cells last 120 days. Hence, there is the constant production of bone marrow with up to 1% of blood volume to be replaced every day.
For the huge population of patients in hospitals, blood loss is relevant to lab testing. It can represent only 0.1% to 0.2% of total volume and it is not sufficient for clinical impact. For patients who are critically ill, it is generally not the case, as they need a more detailed checkup. We can do the blood testing around 24 times per day for those patients. According to the above study, blood loss may go up to 100 mL/day, which is similar to a 2% loss of blood volume.
The type and severity of illness and length of stay in ICU, have an impact on blood loss because of lab testing for specific patients. For all, there is a risk of iron deficiency and constant low supply of oxygen to tissues.
Every 1 mL of blood consists of 0.5 mg iron. Hence, a collection of 50 mL blood causes loss of around 25mg of iron. Even a normal diet has 10 to 15 mg of iron per day. Hence, 10% to 30% of it is absorbed, even when 4.5 mg/day recover from a diet with maximum absorption. The overall phlebotomy of only 15 mL of blood causes a negative balance of iron within a few days. The body has significant iron reserves stored and anemia won’t develop until such losses are exhausted.
However, it is seen that iron stores can deplete severely by phlebotomy on daily basis for a long period. People with lower iron may store on admission to ICU are at a higher level than normal risk of signs of anemia related to phlebotomy.
Anemia is diagnosed when the amount of hemoglobin falls under 135 g/L in males and below 115 g/L in females.
The specific vulnerability of patients in intensive care for severe anemia levels is due not only to the loss of blood. It is from phlebotomy and also due to the common critical condition which forced admission of patients, apart from the complication associated with critical illness.
Along with diagnostic blood loss in critically ill patients. The most common signs of iron deficiency are-
Blood loss because of surgery
Trauma or occult bleeding
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Lower red cell production in bone marrow.
With all these, it is clear that anemia is the main aspect of critical illness. It can develop in 90% of patients by the third day after the admission to intensive care. For over a half of those patients, anemia is causing due to ample severity to warrant transfusion of red cells.
According to Von Ahsen et al, blood sampling counted for around 17% of blood loss among 96 patients who are in intensive care. On the other side, Corwin et suggested over 50% of changes in red cells transfusion to intensive care patients which may be accounted for due to blood sampling.
Clinical Impact of Phlebotomy in Infants
Among several changes which take place during the first few weeks of birth, as babies transform from uterine growth to physiological independence, there is a gradual decline in the amount of hemoglobin from 17 g/dL at birth to 11g/dL by 8 weeks of birth.
The significantly normal reduction of hemoglobin is very severe and constant in premature children. Also, it causes anemia in prematurity, in which hemoglobin declines to around 7mg/dL. Among premature babies. This predisposition to anemia can exacerbate by the loss of blood.
The effect of loss of blood because of lab test is higher for most infants, with the most premature neonates with around 1500g of birth weight who all need several weeks of intensive care and monitoring.
There is a significant need for blood testing among the patients, but there is a small circulation of blood volume. There is a higher volume of blood per kg of body weight for neonates than for adults. But assuming 80-90 mL/kg of blood volume too small and frail infants have blood volume which may be lower as 50 mL. Hence, sampling only 1 mL of blood lowers blood volume by 2 percent.
The daily loss of 4% to 5% of blood volume in phlebotomy during the weeks is observing just after delivery, which is not uncommon in the group. According to formal studies, there is a weekly loss because of phlebotomy of 10 to 25 mL/kg among neonates with weight below 1500g. It shows loss of the total volume of blood of 10 to 30 percent, which may play a vital role in the severity of anemia.
Controlling Blood Loss because of Lab Testing
Iatrogenic anemia is considered as a changeable risk factor for red cell transfusion. Reducing exposure to the transfusion risk in the patient is clinically important and it needs strategies to reduce the blood loss in critical care. A lot of approaches are useful and demonstrate that phlebotomists, nurses, lab staff, clinicians, and manufacturers of lab equipment play a vital role.
Fig: Controlling Blood Loss because of Lab Testing
Avoiding Unnecessary Blood Testing
There is evidence which shows that lab testing is excessive in intensive care unit. Tests may be asked as part of routine instead of a requirement. The way written guidelines are adopting for lab testing, they can play a vital role in lowering a number of tests and ensuring those tests are appropriate. Just providing the cost of testing to the physicians can help lower requirements of unnecessary testing. The proper monitoring of the volume of a blood sample from each patient can modify the requirement of the test.
Oversampling of Blood
Obviously, it is vital to ensure that no more blood is drawn than it is actually needed for the analytical process. Marquis et al have highlighted the extent of oversampling who studied the practice of blood sampling in intensive care over the period of 10 weeks. They found that the volume of sampled blood was around 4 to 20 times higher than the original volume of blood used for analysis.
At the same time, an audit of blood sampling revealed that labs collect 2.76 mL at 140 hospitals in the US. It is 8.5 times more than the actual requirement for a full blood count. This is an average of 1.75 for electrolyte profile, which is 12 times more than the actual requirement. Hence, a lot of labs can reduce collection volumes without losing the ability to report a timely and reliable result.
To deal with this issue of oversampling in the intensive care unit for adults, a simple partial solution is used i.e. pediatric tubes of blood collection. According to Smoller et al, 47% reduction of blood loss in an iatrogenic test was reported from regular tubes of blood collection to pediatric tubes.
Lowering Discarded Blood from Indwelling Catheters
The blood sample is collected frequently via an indwelling catheter in critical care. Most of these are often used in radial artery of adults as well as an umbilical artery of infants. A saline flush or heparin solution can maintain the patency of such catheters. For accurate results, it is important that blood is not contaminated with flush liquid and a volume of blood should be discarded to this end, i.e. to a clear line of all flush traces, before sampling of blood.
A minimum volume of 2 mL is the recommendation but actual volume may rely on local practice. A lot of devices are available to return it safely to the patient and conserve the discarded blood after collecting the uncontaminated sample.
Point of Care Testing (POCT)
Even with growing significance, the point of care testing is having a significant potential of all types of strategies which are described to lower iatrogenic anemia among the patients who are critically ill. Around all of the blood tests are taken to monitor patients who are critically ill.
Blood gas analysis has been taken for around two decades in the intensive care settings at the point of care. These days, blood gas analyzers are able to measure blood gas parameters and even have a large number of hematological and chemical parameters which have hitherto as only preserve in the lab setting.
In addition, all of those measurements are making with a small blood sample of 100 to 150 µL. In a critical setting, the main advantage of POCT is, it can reduce the turnaround time. However, the secondary benefit is lower blood loss to conduct diagnostic testing. The helpful effect of point of care testing is shown in a recent study.
What You Need to Know about the Frequency of Quality Control in Clinical Laboratory
Errors in clinical testing are rare, but they do happen.
Since 60 to 70% of all medical decisions are made based on laboratory tests, even the minor 0.012-0.6% reported frequency of laboratory errors is not acceptable.
That’s exactly why quality control clinical laboratories should regularly conduct Quality Control (QC) testing.
At Lab Me, we always use CAP-accredited labs. This gives us (and you) the peace of mind that our test results are accurate and 100% reliable. The importance of quality control in the clinical laboratory can ensure a better customer experience. There are various types of quality control in clinical laboratory. The importance of quality control in clinical laboratory is immence due to customer being at the center of attention.
As a patient, you don’t need to know the nitty-gritty of laboratory best practices, but you may still have questions about QC testing, such as….
What is Quality Control testing? How often should a lab conduct them? So, let’s dig deeper into the subject.
What is Quality Control?
Quality Control is exactly what it sounds like. It is a way of controlling the quality of the methods and tools that a clinical laboratory uses to produce their patient results.
To that end, labs usually run a Quality Control (QC) test every morning before they start performing their patient tests.
If the Quality Control in Clinical Laboratory results shows no discrepancy, the lab instruments perform according to their predefined specifications.
Simply put, a QC test is a way to validate the accuracy of patient results.QC test is also important to keep the organization on right track and ensure customer satisfaction.
Differences between a patient test and a QC test
One notable difference between a patient test and a QC test is this.
A patient test is performed on the patient’s specimen, such as blood and urine samples.
In comparison, a QC test is performed on a patient-like product, also known as QC sample.
While QC samples are different from patient specimens, the former is often made from human blood or urine and closely resembles the features of patient specimens in terms of turbidity, viscosity, color, and composition.
How often should a lab conduct QC testing?
Running one test a day is a de facto standard, but some labs may need to run QC tests more often.
Ideally, for Quality Control in Clinical Laboratory, labs should consider the below factors when determining the right frequency of Quality Control in their situation.
1) Stability – Not all quality materials are created equal. That’s why some QC tests are more stable than the others. If the quality material is NOT stable enough for a 24-hour analytical run, then labs should run tests more frequently.
2) Patient risk – The whole idea of running a QC test is to help patients get an accurate and timely diagnosis. With that in mind, labs should increase the frequency of QC testing in cases where the repercussions of a wrong or delayed result could be devastating.
3) Number of patient tests between QC evaluations – Let’s take an example to understand this. Both “Lab X” and “Lab Y” perform one QC test per day in the morning.
But Lab X runs 30 patients, while Lab Y performs 500 tests daily.
So, for both labs, any QC failure halfway through the day will go undetected until the next morning.
But, since Lab Y runs 500 tests daily, they now have to deal with more faulty patent results (around 250) than Lab X.
So, a better solution for this situation would be to run patient tests in batches, for instance, after every 150 or 200 patient tests.
Hopefully, now you have a clear idea of how labs determine the right frequency of QC testing for them. With that in mind, make sure you get your tests done from CAP-accredited labs.
In this article, we will discuss that blood test is the most important part of healthcare – lab tests which need collecting blood samples. It is also known as ‘checking all blood test frequency’, ‘doing blood work’ or even ‘ all the blood test’. A lot of older adults have gone through this type of test. For example, it is almost impossible to be hospitalized without a blood test and it is the part of emergency room care. We can also do this as an annual exam. The blood test is usually helpful to evaluate several common health issues in aging adults, even though not always.
Fig: Know the Actual Frequency for All Blood Test
For adults experiencing low energy or fatigue, doctors may check for thyroid and anemia among others. A blood test can help check the electrolytes in an older person (as they can be lost by side effect from medicine and by other causes). Blood tests also provide details about kidney function, infection and others. Like most of the medical care, the blood test is usually overused thing. It is often appropriate and a major part to evaluate the healthcare concerns of an older adult.
In older days lab results were reviewed by the doctors and were rarely discussed with families and patients. Today, it has become more common for patients to discuss their results and gain more knowledge about this aspect of health. Both older adults and caregivers should request a copy of lab results and also keep it in their personal health record.
Even though you have concerns about your health or want to see another doctor, you can access this insight about yourself. Now, we are going to discuss and explain all blood tests which are used most commonly for primary medical care.
CBC is the combination of tests related to blood cells. Usually, it consists of these results:
Red blood cell count (RBCs) – It records number of RBCs per microliter
White blood cell count (WBC) – It records number of RBCs per microliter
Hemoglobin (Hgb) – It records total oxygen-carrying protein in grams per deciliter of blood.
Hematocrit (Hct) – It is a part of blood made of RBCs.
Platelet count or Plts – It records amount of platelets (a small cell in blood clotting) per microliter
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) – It is the average size of RBCs.
The CBC is also ordering differently. We can classify the WBCs into different subtypes.
CBC test is also using for –
Diagnosing anemia if RBC count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels are lower.
Usually, the white blood cell count level goes up in case of infection. Some medications like corticosteroids can also increase WBC count.
If different types of blood cells like white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, are low, it can be a sign of a bone marrow problem.
The platelet count of an older person may often be lower than usual (or even higher as compared to normal). Usually, it may need further evaluation.
Basic Metabolic (electrolyte) panel
Even though you can request measuring single electrolyte, it is a lot more common to order electrolytes test a part of 7 to 8 measurements of the panel. It is also known as ‘chem-7’ and basically covers –
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What is the purpose of using the basic metabolic panel?
Due to medicinal side effects, electrolytes like potassium or sodium can be either too low or too high. These electrolytes are sometimes monitoring when people take certain medications like diuretics or some blood pressure medications.
Carbon dioxide levels reflect acidity level of the blood. It can be affected by lung and kidney function. Acid levels in the blood may change due to severe infection.
BUN and creatinine levels are used most commonly to keep track of kidney function. Both these levels can go up if the function of the kidney is impaired temporarily. For example, by a medication side effect or dehydration, or seriously impaired.
A lot of medications should dose in a different way if a person has impaired kidney function.
It is common among older adults to have a mild effect in kidney function.
These days, laboratories are using creatinine level and age of the patient to estimate the rate of glomerular filtration, which can represent functioning of filtration in kidneys. We also know this as a better measure of kidney function rather than just depending on BUN and creatinine levels.
Glucose levels show the amount of sugar present in your blood.
Complete metabolic panel
In this panel, all the items that basic metabolic panel covers are included and then includes added seven items. We also know it as ‘chem-14’ panel for this reason. The complete panel also includes the following items along with seven tests in the basic panel –
The complete metabolic panel is also using for the following –
Usually, calcium levels are controlling by certain hormones and kidneys.
Low or high blood calcium levels may lead to symptoms, such as cognitive dysfunction and it usually defines the common health problem.
There are certain types of medications cause this problem.
Usually, blood calcium levels are not a good choice to determine total calcium stores or calcium intake in the body and bones.
Albumin is one of the essential proteins in the bloodstream. It is usually synthesized by the liver. Low levels of albumin can show the problem in maintaining albumin in the bloodstream or with the lever. Low albumin levels are also the signs of malnutrition.
ALT and AST enzymes in liver cells – The high level of these enzymes often indicate the issues relevant to the liver. Medications or different other health conditions can cause this issue.
LDL or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or bad cholesterol calculated on the basis of the other three results.
Usually, the Doctors recommend the patients for fasting before blood test to get cholesterol checking. Triglycerides are subject to rising after eating and it may lead to false low LDL cholesterol levels. These tests are often used to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults. The LDL cholesterol levels are also treating with medications like a statin. Dietary changes also help reduce these levels.
Here are six different types of tests which are ordered more often on older patients –
Tests on the basis of thyroid functioning
These tests screen for thyroid problems or calibrate dosage for medications. Some of the most widely used tests are free thyroxine or free T4 or FT4 and Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH. Other types of thyroid tests are also ordered in complicated situations. These tests are often ordered for –
If the older adult is having symptoms which could be based on thyroid disorder, TSH levels should be checked first.
Thyroid problems are more evident in older women and these are relevant to symptoms like cognitive problems and fatigue.
If thyroid gland doesn’t make enough of thyroid hormone, TSH must be higher. TSH usually can reflect the determination in your body whether the thyroid hormone is enough or not.
FT4 is also using to confirm the problem in thyroid hormone in case TSH finding is abnormal.
Hemoglobin A1C – Glycated hemoglobin
It is formed in the body when blood sugar or blood glucose attaches to hemoglobin in RBCs. Glucose normally does the same but if you have more amount of glucose in the blood, your glycated hemoglobin percentage will be higher as compared to normal. The higher average blood sugar level is, the higher percentage of glycated hemoglobin you could have. A result of 6.5% or higher suggests diabetes.
The purposes of hemoglobin A1C test –
This test is ordered more often to keep track of the blood sugar level of people with diabetes. When blood glucose level is reported at the specific time period, hemoglobin A1C shows how high a blood sugar of the person has been over the past three months.
HB A1C test can easily use as part of the evaluation for pre-diabetes or possible diabetes.
It is important for older adults to work with doctors to find out what A1C goal is right. It is usually wise to aim for higher goal among older patients.
Tests on the basis of vitamin B12 levels
These tests measure vitamin B12 serum levels and provide insights on whether the level is right for your body’s needs. It involves two different tests like Methylmalonic acid and Vitamin B12 levels. According to the situation, additional testing may be pursued to find out the cause of deficiency of vitamin levels. These tests are usually ordered for –
The deficiency of vitamin B12 is common in older adults and may relevant to common issues like memory problems, fatigue, and walking problems.
Levels of methylmalonic acid in the body are connected with levels of vitamin B12 and it can help confirm the deficiency of vitamin B12. It is very vital to check this if older adult has low vitamin B12 levels.
International Normalized Ratio (INR) and Prothrombin time (PT)
These tests are used to measure the frequency of blood clots. It should repeat regularly if you have been taking warfarin (Coumadin), a kind of blood thinner. The Prothrombin time (PT) is usually conducted for –
The INR is estimated by the lab on the basis of prothrombin time. The usual goal for INR should around 2.0 and 3.0 in people who are taking warfarin. Warfarin is usually taken by older adults to avoid strokes due to atrial fibrillation. Warfarin is usually prescribing to treat the blood clot in the lungs, legs or any part of the body.
The prothrombin time is often checked if there are concerns relevant to severe infection, bleeding, or the ability of lever to synthesize clotting.
BNP or Brain Natriuretic Peptide test
Irrespective of its name, BNP levels are usually checked as they are relevant to heart function, not the brain. The levels of BNP usually go up when the heart of the person is unable to pump blood as effectively as it must, i.e. a problem of heart failure. This test is less frequently used and it is the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide test. This test is mainly used to –
Check the level of BNP to find out worsening or recent heart failure. It is a common chronic health condition in older adults, which can often go extreme.
The BNP test may use widely to evaluate an individual who complains shortness of breath. It can cause due to various problems, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, angina, pulmonary edema, and others. Low BNP level means shortness of breath is unlikely at the moment due to heart failure.
It is often used to monitor heart failure in the person and its response to treatment.
The ferritin level of the body’s serum is based on iron stores in our body. If iron levels in older person need a further checkup, further tests may be ordered according to the situation. Here are the purposes for this test.
Ferritin levels are using most commonly to evaluate anemia (low amount of blood cells). Low level of ferritin suggests the deficiency of iron, which is common in anemia. According to the studies, only a third of anemias among older adults is because of deficiencies in iron or other vital aspects. It is vital to confirm the deficiency of iron by checking ferritin or other types of tests, before depending on iron levels to treat anemia in an older person.
If ferritin levels are on borderline, or if there are other kinds of reasons to concern about the ability of an older person to manage iron.
Inflammation also affects ferritin levels, which can increase its levels.
There are several other tests that you can order as part of medical care. But the tests covered above are the ones that are asked too frequently.
The Frequency of Blood Tests
Doctors usually ask for getting blood work done more often than not. However, most of us don’t know what all the blood test covers. Lab tests that are ordered will depend most likely on different factors, such as –
How often we need blood work?
When there are no blood panels are required during the annual exam, following tests can be ordered –
A Chemistry Panel
A Complete Blood Count Test
Having a CBC test can pick early signs of several common disorders like anemia, which can cause listless and tiredness.
Basic metabolic profile tests several elements in the blood, such as
Blood glucose (or sugar)
A CMP or complete metabolic profile can screen everything that is done by a basic profile. It is better than other blood tests. It consists of testing –
Blood Work in the Twenties
It is important for you to check your cholesterol, especially when you are in your 20s. If you have a normal cholesterol level, you can repeat the test every five years. If you have a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease or have unhealthy levels, you must get the test every year. You should also do test for HIV and blood sugar during your 20s.
You need to maintain healthier living by controlling cholesterol intake, but how would you know if you have high levels of cholesterol? Well, there are no symptoms. So, cholesterol levels checking is the only best way.
It is yet another silent killer which can sneak up on both men and women, with no symptoms and high risk. Hypertension or high blood pressure can make the heart work harder, damage arteries and can cause a lot of health problems. When you measure your blood pressure, the bottom number is diastolic pressure and the top number is systolic pressure.
When testing for diabetes, it is very important to check blood sugar levels. Once you get an insight on your blood sugar levels, you can control over your life if you chose an unhealthy diet which causes obesity. Your heart needs to work harder if you have excess weight and your cholesterol levels and blood pressure may rise. You know these factors cause risks of heart disease. So, managing your weight is important to lower your risk.
After your 20s
You need to know what’s coming to get blood work done as you grow older so you can be ready.
When you reach the thirties
The same tests will repeat that you had by your doctor in your twenties. However, your thyroid function also will be checked in the test. It is very vital to check thyroid function as under-active or overactive thyroid can trigger a huge list of symptoms. Here are some of the thyroid symptoms which may not work properly –
Weight loss or gain
Skin issues like eczema
When you reach your forties
Get the same blood work as you did in your 20s, but also add a cardiac blood test to check for risk of stroke or heart disease. This test is important in case of high cholesterol, overweight, or a family history of heart disease. It is highly recommended to go through a cholesterol test if you have a family history.
In your fifties
Along with regular blood tests, also add vitamin D test. It is because around 75% of women have a lack of vitamin D so their bones are at risk. Chronic deficiency of vitamin D can also cause the risk of breast cancer and other issues.
Why you should go for a regular blood test?
Getting regular blood work is important to lead a healthy life. With the results from the all blood test, the doctor can determine how well your body is functioning, including the health of your liver, kidneys, heart, and thyroid. Blood tests can also detect some diseases like HIV, Cancer, Diabetes, Anemia, and certain heart diseases.
What we can expect?
Before doing the test
Usually, a blood test takes only a couple of minutes. When most of us don’t need any special kind of preparation some blood tests need fasting. If you have to fast before blood work, you shouldn’t eat for around 8 to 12 hours before the blood test. You may ask your doctor for all blood test.
Usually, blood drawing is possible from a vein in arm with a needle. Some tests just need pricking the finger. Some people feel nervous about the needle, while some just may scare of seeing the blood. Look away when blood is drawing if it happens to you.
Just after drawing the blood, you are asked to apply pressure lightly with gauze where the needle was put to stop the bleeding. Keep a bandage on the area for hours. You may get results within minutes or a few days according to the type of test. Some tests even take a few weeks.
The Lab report software is the best and handy tool for hospital management to deliver faster results. It is a convenient and helpful lab report software which plays a vital role in diagnostics labs. The procedure of healthcare management should be looked after more carefully.
Fig: Top 10 Benefits of Lab Report Software
These days, you can have well-designed software for your lab. Online lab software is used in the healthcare industry and labs. This software has been designed with an innovative approach for the user-friendly and effective interface.
It is a great digital platform to improve customer satisfaction. It is an excellent program for different reasons. This software has been designed according to diverse needs such as:
It is a very versatile tool that can be used in laboratories with great healthcare solutions to meet diverse needs.
Core Functions of Lab Report Software
Managing the workflow properly is the need of the hour in a lab setting. Here are the practices that this software handles to make the process easier and improve patient care –
Patient Prescription and Visit Report
Invoicing and Billing
Reports and Summaries
How does Software work?
The lab software can maintain the record and provide the facts about tests. It is a very handy tool with modules that run smoothly.
With great report and bill generation facility, you can have the following features in your hands-
It can improve the accuracy and privacy of the right test results. Also, it is helpful in treatment with a clear analysis that can help to diagnose illnesses at right time.
Lab Report Software – Key Features
Here are the key features of lab management software to improve the workflow of labs –
Complete information management
Invoicing and Billing Report
Prescription printed in the local language
Detailed geographical information
Easy to receive patient visit details
Benefits of The Software
It has literally become important for all types of works to automate lab process. It is very vital building their online works and sales. Failing to do this could cause a situation where they cannot deal with costs because of service delays and other issues.
The software improves the overall ability of the lab and ensures accuracy in reports. These tools can execute the automated results and help to compare the actual results. The testing can ensure facility in lab report software without manual and extra re-work.
One of the best parts of the lab software is that it can implement again and again, with enhanced accuracy and minimal effort.
Automated testing is playing a vital role in validation in other phases. It can improve interaction between designers, coders, and product owners. Also, and it can easily rectify the potential errors.
Due to the instant work of testing, it can save a lot of time for plenty of systems. It can carry out the testing quickly and deliver faster results every time.
This system can save a lot of money, even though initial investment is usually higher. It is because of a steep drop in the time needed for testing. Also, it can give results in a higher quality of work while reducing the need for resolving problems after release and it also saves more on project costs.
Improving Testing Efficiency
Testing takes a huge part of the overall app development cycle. It shows even the small changes in efficiency can make big difference to the overall project time frame. Even though it initially takes longer time, LIMS can save time.
Great overall coverage of lab test
While working on the tests, a lot of tests can be executed based on the application. It can give improved coverage than the manual work, which would take a huge team and it takes a lot of time. Also, the higher coverage can help by testing more features and quality of the lab report software.
Re-usability in Automated Tests
Because of the repetitive nature of lab tests and ease of setup and configuration of LIMS software, developers can easily assess the program reaction. Also, the automated test cases are utilized with varied plans and are able to use again.
Early detection of defects
The detection of defects in the LIMS system has become very easier for teams. It helps improve the overall speed of development while ensuring proper features over different areas. The earlier we identify the defect, the more cost-saving it can be to fix the error.
Faster turnaround time
Lab report software improves reversal time by ensuring proper work of test cases. The execution of the test library is faster and runs longer than the manual process.
Testers are supposed to have varied testing ways and their areas of focus vary because of their expertise and exposure. With automation, there is an improved focus on all testing areas and it also assures the best quality.
The quality of testing relies heavily on the quality of test data. Creating quality test data manually is time taking and it can turn on live database copies. Hence, the solutions are to help, create, and protect the test database and you can reuse the data again and again. Also, the cost and time saving is huge in this area.
The best part of medical lab reporting software is that it can improve value to all the stakeholders who are involved in it.
Few values are like the followings
The increasing revenue
Improves brand image
Ensures higher customer retention
Increases brand recall.
Hence, there is a hike in investment on process and product research. Then, it is helping to establish and scale new heights in the market.
Eventually, it will yield a solution to issues that are common in the firm and it will also help increase the industry standards. It depends on business leaders to use the value of quality and finally make it one of the core plan of the work.
The automated test results benefits us in the followings-
Time and stress
These types of benefits can make all the changes as SMEs endeavor to gain a huge edge. They can play a vital role in the success of the agency.
Why Lab Management Software is not implemented so widely?
Even though pathology lab reporting software is recommended, all firms cannot accept it. The initial cost of testing is a great reason behind this. Along with it, a lot of leaders may ignore this aspect and place the issue on the back burner. There is a resistance to change that they may come across before using it.
The firms still have to be careful when it comes to contacting online lab software vendors. This type of automation is much customized and can cover around 50% of the test process. When DevOps methods and Agile testing are widely used in the IT industry, it goes without saying that you can conduct testing even with the least viable product. According to the budget needs of customers, there are different tools and plans available for investment.
Implementing Lab Software in the Current Situation
It can be challenging to automate lab tests and make lab report software. However, it can deliver effective results if it is implemented properly. If it is not done properly, it can also cause chaos and absolute disruption of the project.
Set specific goals
With any type of lab system, you need to set specific goals and align automation according to that. The goals must be tracked with the project and it will allow testers to step back and keep track of a specific activity. In addition, the deployment goals change constantly.
This lab report software is an automation tool which keeps track of progress on builds and provides smooth deployment. Deployments and building can get annoying because of repetitive nature. With specific targets, automation can make the process faster for testing teams. In addition, it also lowers the scope of error.
Web Service/API Testing
Web services integrate two different apps for data exchange without affecting the specific structure of an app. So, it is important to test web services to validate the response. This way, automation tasks can be very sensitive to development teams. All of the tests can be placed at the middle layer in this process. It helps identify issues and bugs faster and it can fix the errors by using the frameworks.
Automation in Non-Functional Testing
Non-functional testing like workload and stress tests are very important to figure out the overall look of the application. These tests can be annoying and are repetitive. Hence, it results in an error. Hence, the lab reporting software can add value for such tests and avoid the risk of errors.
Making repetitive tasks
With regards to data testing, it consists of comparing files like CSV, text files, and Excel sheets. It helps compares against baselines to make data validation or there are certain files generated from two sources. Any of these activities can cause repetition, which should be recognized instantly. So, automation is very important to ensure that any kind of error in the processing of data can be identified quickly. Also, the test automation can be implemented for varied needs.
Automation to perform search activity
Looking for a specific file in the data can be difficult and it results in ineffective search process and errors. Any of those tasks can be automated to ensure speed and efficiency in the search process.
Pathology has become part of our lives and the overall healthcare system. Most of the persons rely on labs to screen for critical illnesses like cancer, monitor the progress of a disease, manage therapies, and to diagnose diseases. In pathology, the application of digital technology has the potential to transform the analog practice as pathologists deliver services and information through digital ways.
With around 33 companies offering digital lab software, hardware and solutions across the world, the international digital pathology market is about to reach over $4.5 billion by the year 2018. After Asia and Europe, North America is the third continent which rules the digital pathology market. There are several programs that can help improve the adoption of this technology.
Digital Pathology Innovations
Fig: Digital Pathology Innovations
Here are some of the common examples of using innovation in Labs–
Conversion of shape in lab-to-lab and other areas with direct interfaces.
Offering clinical lab services at remote areas and providing second opinions.
Integration of pathology lab test results and management across several labs with different LIS system.
Integration can increase efficiency in data processing and promoting the overall functions.
Sharing information for patient care, such as promoting, consulting, patient health records, and referrals.
Promoting self-management among patients who have been suffering from long-term conditions, i.e. by helping them to self-manage their problems.
Data mining to achieve business intelligence of pathology processes and using the derived info to improve patient results and services.
Use of lab report software for presenting cases in tumor boards and for training and education.
Control over transportation and collection of samples from hospitals, clinics, and surgeries to laboratories.
An automated and quantitative approach in image analysis as well as detection to promote identifications of areas of interest and offer risk-based prioritization of cases.
In digital pathology, overall benefits may cover in patient safety, service delivery, and orders, along with reduced costs, error rates, and more efficient.
In the near future, labs will have digital solutions to –
Promote custom medical help where therapies can be customized as per the patient’s needs and conditions
For providing the primary diagnosis of illness
Analyze and read data to figure out the links between treatments and medical tests and to improve best outcomes.
The complete insight into patient’s care and health to the pathologists
Accessing data from a spectrum of various data sites instantly and to access prior data with ease.
To help labs to get in touch with labs and patients easily and directly.
An optimized structure of delivery by removing geographical limits.
Empower the patients to manage their health on their own by accessing electronic health records in the lab information system.
What are the Barriers which may come in the adoption of automation?
When there are significant benefits of the lab management system, there are still concerns and questions regarding technology. It may pose certain barriers in adopting whole slide imaging or WSI. Also, the technical concerns related to digital slide scanning will be solved.
Here are the functions to scan slides-
Several focal points (z-axis)
Image access speeds
limitations in computer hardware for storing and processing data.
However, regulatory issues are one of the major concerns. How regulation can be applied to care, models, in which WSI components are operated and bought by several entities.
For example- Image hosting, image capture in a facility, Manipulation in the second facility, as well as interpretation in the third one.
There are different issues you must consider when it comes to validating WSI for primary application in diagnosis, such as –
Types of data generated
Keeping the device separate from a practitioner
Experience of a pathologist, both with the device and in practice
Validation setting and washout for concordance
Types of data to be generated
Making the findings general
There has been a lot of progress till date, i.e. with regulatory pathways in member states of Europe and Canada now open for primary healthcare diagnosis of WSI or whole slide images. However, there are regulatory barriers to the American market.
The WSI systems are regulated by the FDA as Class III devices which include high risk. The adoption of this technology has been slowed down in their position.
With the existing progress in technical and regulatory matters, digital lab report software will definitely take healthcare to a new level and pathology services will also help stakeholders in future to enjoy a lot of potential benefits in the digital lab.
Lab Me Analytics – A Complete Solution to Ease Lab Records
These days, we breathe and we live in the era of technology which has some pros and cons. Even though our lives have been easier than ever, technology also brings some problems you shouldn’t overlook, just like every coin has two aspects.
Healthcare industry is no exception to going digital when the whole world is doing all work online in almost every sector. This way, labs have also come up with online or digital services. Lab Me Analytics is one of the leading programs for the clinical lab to interpret lab reports.
Let’s get into the details and have more info about this laboratory software. It is, basically, a cloud-based mobile app for Android and iOS for Pathology Labs. The app can help to manage the home visit and in-center appointments, finance, tests, reports, and each aspect properly.
With this software, your lab and its services are just one tap away. Acquire all the important data by tapping once. Essentially, it is a great management to have all the records of blood work, exactly from the request of report delivery, along with each small detail. Also, with the tests, the lab report software helps the system to gather all the lab data at once. In short, it ensures accurate work by centralizing the records. Also, it is providing all-time access to users, even though they want to check their history.
Medications can influence clinical laboratory test results either by interfering with the analytical frameworks themselves or affecting endogenous constituents.
Thus, your doctor, clinicians, and laboratory staff should remember this potential interference while interpreting the consequences of laboratory test results and guarantee that they get a total and exact record of all medications being utilized by patients to anticipate potential (drug-lab test interactions).
For instance, biotin is a dietary supplement, and it was seen that it could cause clinically tremendous off-base outcomes on lab tests, for example, troponin. In these tests, biotin can cause erroneously low results, prompting missed conclusions and possibly severe clinical ramifications.
Biotin can also mess up your hormone lab tests, causing wrong high results in testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, inaccurate low results in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, parathyroid hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin levels.
Many prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as dietary supplements, can affect laboratory test results. It is an important reminder, considering that an estimated 70% of medical decisions made in the United States are based on clinical lab test results.
Lab tests play a crucial role in clinical decision-making. More than 4000 lab tests are available, and an estimated 70% of clinical decisions are based on their results. The correct interpretation is critical.
The pharmacologic effects of drugs can change laboratory test results; for example, levothyroxine increases thyroid levels, or lisinopril may increase potassium levels in your laboratory test results. But these changes do not involve interference with the laboratory test results. True drug-lab test interactions result from a drug altering the test specimen or direct interference from the drug itself reacting with the test reagents.
Following is the list of medication that interacts with your laboratory tests:
Antibacterial medications can mess up your lab tests, with cephalosporins at the bleeding edge. Cephalosporins can cause false-positive laboratory test results in urine glucose and urine ketone tests, just as in the direct Coombs test (used to recognize immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). Penicillin-type anti-infection medications like amoxicillin and ampicillin can likewise cause wrongly high glucose test results.
Co-trimoxazole, daptomycin, erythromycin, and telavancin can cause false high laboratory test results in prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR). Doxycycline can cause falsely elevated effects in catecholamine tests. Levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and rifampin can cause false positives in urine drug screenings for opiates. Ciprofloxacin can mildly boost results in urine protein tests.
Psychotropic medications include antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-dyskinesia agents, can cause false positives in drug screens and pregnancy laboratory test results.
Iodinated contrast media can affect your blood protein levels, altering the protein blood or protein urine tests.
Gadolinium contrast medications can lower your colorimetric measures for serum angiotensin-changing over protein, calcium, and zinc. These medications can likewise cause positive impedance in creatinine, magnesium, selenium, and absolute iron, restricting limit tests and positive and negative iron examination interactions.
After contrast media are managed, patients should stand by at any rate for 4 hours before having lab specimen collected.
Proton pump inhibitors
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), for example, omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole, can cause negatives laboratory test results in your urea breath test and the stool antigen test.
With long-term use, PPIs can prompt false negative points in the urea breath laboratory test results. A few clinicians have detailed expanded INR and PT in patients getting PPIs and warfarin correspondingly. PPIs can likewise cause raised serum levels of chromogranin A, a marker for tumors.
Medications and laboratory test
Can you take medicine before having a laboratory test?
It relies upon the type of blood test you are having and what medication you take.
In case you do not know or have any inquiries about your blood test, ask your healthcare provider for guidance.
Never stop taking prescribed medication unless you are told to do so by your doctor.
Medication and blood test results
Some medications can influence blood-related laboratory test results, yet this does not imply that you need to quit taking your medication. For instance, oral corticosteroids, for example, steroid tablets, can build your cholesterol levels in a blood cholesterol test.
Notwithstanding, a specialist can consider this while interpreting your laboratory test results, so you will not have to quit taking your medication. In case you are uncertain, continue to accept your medication as recommended and check with your doctor. You may likewise need to take your medicines with you to show the individual who will perform your blood test.
Herbal remedies, vitamins, or supplements can also affect laboratory test results, so tell your doctor if you take any of these.
When to stop taking a medication
It would help if you never stopped taking prescribed medicine unless you're told to do so by your doctor. Sometimes, you may need to stop taking medication before a blood test.
Testing your medicine
If you have a blood test to check whether your medicine is working, you should keep taking your medication in most cases.
For example, suppose you are taking medicine to lower your cholesterol level. In that case, you should keep taking it before your cholesterol blood test. As a result, it will show whether the treatment is working.
Thyroid medications and laboratory test
Are You Taking Thyroid Medications? How to Get Accurate Tests?
We have heard many complaints regarding incorrect fluctuations in laboratory test results after the reduction of thyroid medications. And a common question of patients is that, should I take my medication before having my blood drawn for a thyroid test? Yes, you can, but to get more accurate laboratory test results, the test should be done when the thyroid hormone medication is taken after the thyroid test, not before.
Lab tests for thyroid
It is recommended to test your thyroid function if you start taking medications to control your hypothyroidism levels. And the test should be done after 4 to 6 weeks when you start taking medications. 
The following tests are commonly done to interpret the response of these medications:
What is TSH?
TSH is a thyroid-stimulating hormone made by the pituitary organ after it tests thyroid chemicals' coursing levels. The pituitary organ reacts to low thyroid chemical degrees by producing more TSH and significant thyroid chemical degrees by producing more TSH as a rule.
Hyperthyroid states (an excessive amount of thyroid chemical, for example, Grave's sickness
Rarely, an under-working pituitary organ (different chemicals will be off also)
Hypothyroid states (too minimal thyroid chemical), including progressed Hashimoto’s.
Good wellbeing with no thyroid chemical issues
It may be in starting Hashimoto's immune system thyroid.
These medications deliver gradually and consistently, bringing about a moderately stable chemical level in your body. Its half-life is nine days, implying that if you do not take any more medicine, it requires nine days to free half from it from your body. Blood tests are influenced like this:
TSH and free T3 are the same as whether you take your T4 medication previously or have held as long as 48 hours to take the blood test.
T4 tops 2 hours after taking it in medication to influence a blood laboratory test results when taken during that pinnacle time. For the more significant part of the remainder of the day, the T4 levels will be stable.
A few specialists change portions of medication dependent on TSH, so all things considered, no distinction. If the blood test's understanding incorporates T4, the prescription and blood test's circumstance should be regarded for an exact evaluation.
Taking combination medication that includes T3
This is the place where we see the hugest contrast in the circumstance of your precise laboratory test results. Suppose you somehow managed to take your thyroid drug within 5 hours of completing your thyroid function tests. In that case, your laboratory test results may show that you are ingested too much, in any event, when you might be precisely dosed, or they may demonstrate your labs to be inside specific cutoff points when you may be under-dosed.
What happens is that the TSH is immediately affected by the T3 in the medication. It starts to drop directly and drops for 5 hours after taking the dose of medicine. It begins to rise and reaches a stable point about 13 hours after taking the medication. This can vary in people, but the cited research study found that this can be expected in most people.
T3, being the active form of the thyroid hormone, acts differently than T4 in that it has a relatively short half-life. Within 18 hours to 3 days, depending on the person, half of the T3 hormone is left compared to 9 days for T4. Therefore, levels of T3 can fluctuate during the day, in some rapidly declining within the day.
When you take T3 in medicine, the free T3 levels on a blood test are influenced promptly by expanding. The pinnacle is around 4 hours in the wake of taking medication. At that point, it begins the decay.
Consequently, it is generally best to defer your mixed drug until after you complete your lab test.
It appears to be the best is completing your thyroid capacity tests before anything else, carrying your medications with you, and taking them just after you have your thyroid function tests to guarantee that you get exact test outcomes. 
Cholesterol medications and laboratory test
How medications affect your cholesterol test results?
A cholesterol test is done to decide if your cholesterol is high and detect your danger of having cardiovascular failures and different types of coronary illness and infections of the veins.
Some medications you are taking for other ailments, for example, hypertension or hormonal treatments, may antagonistically influence your lipid levels. This could incidentally build your fatty oils and "terrible" LDL cholesterol while bringing down your "great" HDL cholesterol.
This may be bothersome if you have never had to worry about high cholesterol before. Additionally, if you are currently on medications to lower your cholesterol, you might notice that your therapy may need to be adjusted.
Beta-blockers are medications that are typically endorsed to treat hypertension. Despite the favorable critical benefits they offer in treating a few types of coronary illness, beta-blockers additionally have been noted to diminish HDL levels and elevate triglyceride levels.
Prednisone is a glucocorticoid used to reduce the swelling, warmth, and tenderness associated with many inflammatory conditions. Despite the relief they may give to you, they can raise triglycerides, LDL cholesterol levels, and HDL cholesterol levels.
Your doctor may recommend fasting before having your cholesterol checked. If they say you should fast, they'll likely suggest that you avoid eating for 9 to 12 hours before your test. For this reason, cholesterol tests are often scheduled in the morning. 
Non-Medical factors and laboratory tests.
Some preanalytical or "non-medical" in vivo factors are outside our ability to control. These incorporate age, hereditary factors, ethnic groups, race, and sex. These elements can likewise influence your laboratory test results and must be overseen by suitable reference limits for every populace.
Numerous preanalytical variables can be affected by the normalized arrangement of you or must be considered to interpret individual laboratory test results. Research shows that pre-analytical errors have a high risk of altering laboratory test results.
The most common of these factors are diet, starvation, exercise, and posture.
Your standard 2900 J (700 kcal) meal increases the levels of triglycerides by 50%, aspartate aminotransferase by 20%, bilirubin and glucose by 15%, and alanine aminotransferase by 10%. The total protein levels, albumin, and cholesterol are also increased but only by less than 5%, not clinically significant.
Caffeine consumption can also increase blood glucose concentration due to increased gluconeogenesis and increases non-esterified fatty acids even threefold. The latter can interfere with the quantification of hormones and drugs bound to albumin by the fatty acid-induced displacement effect.
Furthermore, plasma renin activity and catecholamine concentrations are elevated after caffeine intake. Apart from these, the acute effects of alcohol include decreased serum glucose and increased serum lactate due to gluconeogenesis inhibition. Alcohol intake may lead to metabolic acidosis because of lactate and acetate (a metabolite of ethanol), which decrease serum bicarbonate.
After 14 h of starvation, your P-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, lactate, acetoacetate, and pyruvate, begin to increase. Hunger of 40-48 h increases the concentration of P-hydroxybutyrate up to 30-fold. Free fatty acids and glucagon are also grown, and insulin is slightly decreased. Metabolic acidosis results from increases in organic acids. Long-term starvation of 4 weeks decreases strongly (20-50%) the concentrations of glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, and urea, whereas it increases (20-40%) the uric concentrations acid, creatinine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Prolonged starvation also invalidates the oral glucose tolerance test due to decreased glycogen stores in the liver. Hunger of 12 hrs is recommended as a standard procedure before sampling, but more extended starvation should be avoided.
Physical exercise changes plasma volume due to volume shifts between the intranasal and interstitial compartments and volume loss by sweating. Additionally, the acid-base balance may be strongly affected. As a result of exercise, the volume of urine decreases, and the erythrocyte and leukocyte count of urine and the number of proteins excreted to urine may increase.
However, the exercise-induced changes show high individual variability and depend on the training status, temperature, and liquids intake.
There are sure variations in laboratory test results that can be required because of non-modifiable biological components, for example, age, biological rhythms, and physiological changes during pregnancy. These variables might be controlled for, for example by choosing the most proper time in the day, month, or year for a test, or might be contemplated in the interpretation of laboratory test results.
Following are the biological factors that affect the laboratory test results:
The physiological changes related to aging imply that more aged individuals are bound to have laboratory test results that fall outside of the typical reference range. For certain tests, laboratories can give an age-changed reference range, yet for different tests, an outcome outside of the reach in a more established patient should be deciphered with regards to their by and large clinical picture.
Most of the time, accessing the rate and greatness of change after some time offers more data than deciphering the estimation of an individual outcome. Frequently the population range of a test shows significantly more variety than that for an individual patient, for example, serum creatinine, liver compounds. In such cases, the patient's own past outcomes are a helpful pattern.
So while interpreting the laboratory test results in older aged people, laboratories should use suitable reference values related to their age.
Daily and seasonal variation
In addition to the day-to-day variation, your circadian rhythm affects your laboratory test results such as serum somatotropin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol show the most substantial circadian change. The diurnal variation in somatotropin is 300-400% and in cortisol 180-200%. The concentrations of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol are highest early in the morning.
Sleeping causes significant peaks in prolactin and somatotropin excretions. The circadian rhythm also affects serum testosterone, thyrotropin, total thyroxine, aldosterone, renin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, hemoglobin, eosinophils, iron, potassium, and phosphate.
Seasonal variations are less significant, but, for example, total thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin response to thyroid releasing hormone are higher in the winter, and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol is higher in the summer.
Your normal pregnancy is characterized by major physiological adaptations altering maternal blood biochemistry and hematological laboratory values. During pregnancy, your mean plasma volume rises about 2600-3900 mL causing hemodilution. There is an overall decrease in total plasma protein concentration, resulting primarily from the decreased albumin concentration.
An increase in the acute-phase proteins, main fibrinogen, leads to an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Estrogen increases the hepatic synthesis of binding and carrier proteins (e.g., sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, and corticosteroid-binding globulin), increased total cortisol and total thyroxine. 
The site of sampling may now and then significantly influence your laboratory test results. It must be considered, for instance, in glucose examination. It has been indicated that in the fasting state, the arteriovenous distinction in blood glucose is unimportant, yet that after ingestion of glucose, the slender glucose levels rise higher than the venous levels.
In this manner, for instance, the glucose resistance test has specific reference limits for slender and venous examples. Likewise, it is essential to utilize slender bars to evade level bends in the lactose resistance test and erroneously low blood glucose ascends in sound people. The type of example is likewise significant; for instance, the degree of glucose is roughly one mmol/L higher in plasma and serum than in whole blood.
Hemolysis should be avoided to get reliable laboratory test results because numerous constituents estimated in plasma have moderately high concentrations in platelets—hemolysis increments, particularly the concentrations of potassium (up to 3 mmol/L) lactate dehydrogenase.
Storage of samples
The blood sample's centrifugation and separation should preferably be carried out within one h from drawing the sample. Whole blood samples should not be stored. Samples should be protected from light and contact with air. The effect of temperature varies on different analytes.
Errors in urine collection
Timed urine collections required for quantitative examination are particularly at risk of mistakes because, frequently, a piece of the sample is absent. It is additionally regular that urine tests are excessively old or weakened, inspecting vials are contaminated, and preanalytical factors are deficiently thought to be. During this period, urine is also infected with blood.
Mixing up of samples
In most laboratories, special attention is paid to identifying patients and samples, and identification guidelines are available. However, mixing up samples or patients is possible and must be kept in mind in unexpected laboratory results. 
Lab Me helps you affordably get your blood tests done at home.
With Lab me, you never need to wonder what those confusing letters and numbers on your report mean.
You can easily track your blood work in no time and compare it with other tests and understand results quickly.
We strive to provide quick and accurate information to help your doctor suggest the right dosage without wondering.
Or you can use it to take control of your own health tracking blood changes as a result of diets, supplements, or lifestyle modifications.
You can altogether remove the guesswork of your treatment as it is helpful to both patients and doctors.
Do you want to know what your lab test results mean? Are you worried about your health or your family history? If yes, then Labme Analytic is a great option. LabmeAnalytic provides free lab tests and reports that give you information about your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, glucose level, etc.
LabmeAnalytic offers free comprehensive tests for almost every medical condition. They provide accurate analysis and interpretation of laboratory data. Their goal is to offer affordable testing at high quality standards for everyone.
LabmeAnalytic has partnered with several renowned healthcare organizations to develop their services. These include Health Diagnostic Laboratory, American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) and College of American Pathologists (CAP).
The labme home blood test kit is very helpful. Labmeanalytics gives you all the information you need to understand your lab reports. You’ll find everything you need to know about your lab results in one place - without having to search online.
With Labmeanalytics, you can:
• Get fast and accurate results
• View your results easily
• Find out more about your conditions
• Learn about nutrition
If you are looking to improve your diet, you can use Labmeanalytics' Nutrition Center to learn more about nutrients like vitamin D, iron, magnesium, zinc, potassium, fiber, omega 3 fatty acids and protein. You can even choose which foods to consume based on your daily needs.
If you want to take charge of your health, you can use LabmeAnalytic's Fitness Center to analyze your personal fitness routine. You can view detailed information about your heart rate, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, steps taken, calories burned and body composition.
LabmeAnalytics works hard to ensure that both its clients and patients receive high-quality care. Their goal is to provide reliable, convenient and affordable laboratory services.
So, if you are looking for a trusted provider of lab reports, visit Labmeanalytic today. You can order your reports directly from their website.
LabmeAnalytic is a private company that was founded in 2007. The company has been serving millions of users since then. In addition to being a leading provider of personalized lab reports, LabmeAnalytic also offers other services including home pregnancy test kits.
LabmeAnalytic provides a series of services that allow individuals to obtain their lab reports quickly and accurately. Some of their services include:
• Full Profile Reports
• Health Management Reports
• Home Pregnancy Tests
• Blood Sugar Testing
• Vitamin Testing
• Bone Density Testing
• Lipid Panel
• Liver Function
• Thyroid Function
• Cardiovascular Analysis
• DNA Diagnosis
• Food Intolerance
• Metabolic Syndrome
• Iron Deficiency Anemia
• Glucose Tolerance Test
You can order a personalized labme report from LabmeAnalytics at any time. You just need to visit their website and fill up a simple form requesting for a particular test. Once you submit this request, LabmeAnalytics will get back to you within 24 hours with your personalized report.
To make sure that they deliver quality service, LabmeAnalytics uses only top-notch testing equipment and highly trained technicians. They maintain strict policies regarding confidentiality and privacy. Therefore, you can be assured that everything you share with them will remain confidential.
Our goal at Labme is to give you an easy way to manage and interpret your lab reports. We want you to understand how your body works through your lab results and we hope that you take charge of your own health care and feel empowered!
1) Track and store all your lab results
2) Know what each result means
3) Easy to use
4) No more wasted time searching for lab results
5) Access from anywhere
6) View patient summary
7) Simple and intuitive interface
8) Secure online storage
9) Email alerts
Fig: why you should go for Lab.me
So if you are looking for some good lab test analysis software, here is why you should go for Lab.me
Lab me analyzer can explain the complex reports of the patient's laboratory tests.
It can track the critical info required for making quick and discreet blood test results analysis and interpretation.
Lab Me Analyzer can assist with understanding and exploring various types of medical lab results. Also, Lab.me test Analyzer is the simplest report tracking system and can explain what every test reports.
The main vision behind this software is to help patients, so they can spot certain Points that need to be addressed on the lab report provided by your doctor.
Lab.me also can keep all the logs and data of all patients with our secure database. Also, It keeps the patient's laboratory results and tracks them over time.
We are making this best way so that you can associate with your physician for your health-related information all the time.
This software can help you keep track of blood test results of the patient’s health problems history.
The software helps you to insert the short demographic data of your medical report and get the results in a single photo.
By using this software, you can review the lab results and analyze the report. The reports will include interpretations of blood test results that are abnormal and also outside the reference range.
Therefore, the laboratory test analyzers like Lab Me Analytics have been designed. These are automatic systems which count red blood cells, leucocytes and platelets in the blood, and also hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.
Why Choose Lab Me Analytics?
Hematology is a technology which has come a long way within a short time period. However, a technician was used to perform complete blood counts (CBC) manually in the 1950s. Cyanmethemoglobin was a traditional method to measure hemoglobin manually and quite time-consuming and slow. These days, analyzers can process hundreds of samples within an hour. Consequently, modern advances and structures in automation are meant to accommodate several analyzers, strainers and slide facilities.
The Full Blood Count (FBC) is the first test asking by the physicians to assess the general health of a patient. Hence, CBC is able to detect a huge range of health conditions. The conditions are as follows:
It also helps monitor the health of patients going through chemotherapy.
Technologies Used in Lab ME Analytics
You can choose from a huge range of hematology analyzers out there designed to meet the needs of laboratories of all sizes. Small analyzers at settings like ITU or physician’s office, to modular configurations for high throughput, can meet the needs of large-scale hematology laboratory.
The types of methods are:
Electrical impedance methods, Blend method.
Both methods are using by modern analyzers to classify and measure red and white cells. The precise volumes of samples, diluents, and reagents are using by vacuum pump fluidic systems to analysis chambers.
Lab Me Analytics is a fully-automatic analyzer, which is cost-effective, objective and high-throughput. Also, can detect results and they have higher parameters those are as follows:
Red cell distribution width (RDW)
Platelet distribution (PDW)
Nucleated red cells (NRBCs).
White and red blood cells are classifying on the basis of size through an electrical impedance. The diluents are electrically conductive which are passing from a shrunk channel.
Each cell going through the aperture and causes an important drop in electrical charge which is passing through the channel. The particles in the specific fluid volume can measurable with pulses.
Cellular coincidence is one of the major problems based on impedance. It happens when several cells get through the impedance to count aperture at one time. This phenomenon affects all the measures of impedance counting.
The two cells may lead to wrong or low counts and it can be corrected automatically for integrated formula. In current blood test results analyzers, the hydrodynamic focusing is added to avoid confusions.
A slow, thin stream of suspension of a cell is injecting into the fast stream of diluents, around the aperture. Also, the fast diluents form a sheath liquid which covers the diluted sample and helps cells to flow in a file with a sensing aperture.
The wavelength light is passed through the laser beam in the form of the sample stream. Each cell going from sensing zone and light is measuring and scattered through photoconductor which turns the same into an electrical impulse.
The number of impulses matches the number of cells. Scatter of light is helpful to measure the cell structure, granularity, shape, and size. It helps determine the differential. However, some analyzers come with just one angle of light and can generate just one histogram.
There are several complex analyzers use multi-angle scatter, with the flow to differentiate varied cells and to detect atypical and immature cells. These analyzers can produce lots of histograms to give detailed insight into the white blood cells count.
The traditional cytometry is known to be very effective to differentiate the type of cells. However, this method is time-consuming and expensive for cell differentiation. Hence, some manufacturers are adopting the basics of flow cytometry to allow its incorporation in the blood test results analyzer.
Flow cytometry can provide details on side scatter, forward light scatter, and fluorescence to generate NRBC, WBC differential, optical platelets, and RETIC.
Most analyzers use flow cytometry. With the help of flow cytometry methods, analyzers can give more detailed insight in the form of messaging and flags, i.e. details on the presence of immature granulocytes, blasts, macrocytosis, microcytosis, and anisocytosis.
We can count the RBC with optical methods or impedance. Even small blood glucose test analyzers can provide details on HCT, MCV, MCHC, and MCH.
There are several large-scale automatic analyzers which provide information on RDW and red cell morphology. With the use of RBC histograms, users can consider red cell distribution. Usually, platelets and red cells are counting well.
There are different circumstances responsible for unusual red blood cell counts, such as cold agglutinins, cryoglobulins, and lipids.
The most complex analyzers can flag potential causes of spurious parameters and red blood cell counts. Without producing white cell scatter-grams, analyzers cannot be sensitive to those situations.
According to the complexity and size, the analyzer may report 3-part, 7-part or 5-part differential. Analyzers use a lot of technologies to figure out the differential of white blood cells. These can be grouped into impedance, optical, and flow cytometry and an analyzer might often use a combination of those methods to collect the data.
The internal components of cells might stain with dyes made of fluorescent and then emitted light is caught.
The manufacturers of some of the sophisticating analyzers are also adapting the cytometry principles. Also, they are making it cost-effective and practical in the analysis. Flow is combining with impedance and/or optical methods are using in creating in-depth scatter plots. The scatter can determine measurements of each type of cells.
All of the large analyzers will result in 5-part differentials and they might give 7 parts, including atypical lymphocytes (blasts) and large immature cells (immature granulocytes and blasts). Hence, a large amount of data available to the operator due to these technologies can improve lab efficiency and manual review rates.
There are four major causes behind cellular interferences in the chamber which collects white cells, including giant platelets, nRBCs (RBCs), platelet clumps and intracellular parasites. These interference particles lead to the pattern on test analyzers and WBC histogram which were once unable to differentiate between these.
These days, the latest analyzers provide various histograms generated by two light angles. This information is vital to differentiate between four different types of interference of cells.
All of the hematology analyzers are able to provide analysis of platelet count, either by optical methods, impedance or by combining both of those methods. A lot of analyzers will also give additional parameters like PDW. Platelets are also counting with impedance electrically.
There are some cases when the value of impedance can compromise like in presence of platelet clumps or giant platelets.
Some analyzers provide combined optical platelet count and electrical count as normal. Fluorescence platelet counts can be measured with fluorescence flow Cytometry and it can calculate the immature platelet fraction, which enables clinicians to assess the activity of Thrombopoietin in bone marrow.
Platelet counts can determine through Cytometry. Also, it can help to resolve the counters of impedance platelets. The clinicians can report CD61 Immunoplatelet count within 5 minutes.
The measurement of hemoglobin is based on changes in manual hemoglobin-cyanide (HiCN) method. Also, the cyanmethemoglobin reagent is using to dilute the sample. In the reagent, potassium ferricyanide turns the hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Also, with potassium cyanide, it is combined to form cyanmethemoglobin. A photo-detector reads the color intensity to allow concentration of hemoglobin. Some manufacturers use sodium lauryl Sulphate instead of HiCN, which is a non-toxic method.
Point of Care
At the point of care, some blood group test analyzers are using to give just HCT and Hb results. It can come in handy on ITU and surgical wards. Also, a lot of point-of-care systems use dry hematology technology, which can operate without expensive and heavy reagent packs. Even small analyzers can give differential of white cells with this technology, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes, along with Hb, HCT, platelet count and MCHC.
However, Sysmex has small analyzer of hematology, which is designed well for point-of-care setting, having 19 parameters with 3-part differential. There is another brand named Horiba which also offers compact, small lab test analyzer used in hospitals like ITU and ED, or in labs and it gives 3-part differential along with PLT and RBC parameters including PCT, PDW, and RDW.
They stain the RNA in red blood cells with nucleic acid, supravital or fluorescent dyes. Immature cells contain a lot of RNAs, and mature red cells don’t have RNA. The Hb content and 6-size reticulocytes are taken with impedance and light scatter.
While fluorescent cytometry of the flow allows proper reticulocyte count at low concentrates and along with giant platelets. The IRF or immature reticulocyte fraction shows the indication of bone marrow regeneration. When regeneration of bone marrow starts, the IRF will raise after a couple of hours. Also, circulating reticulocyte may hardly take 2-3 days to show a rise.
Automated Slide Makers
There are different types of analyzers out there which are capable to automate the slide staining and preparation. Also, there are different instruments that can review slides on their own.
Slide making strainers are available as part of hematology. Some manufacturers are offering those analyzers, which we can use along with hematology analyzers or as simple solutions.
Here are some key features of the Labme analyzer
It can take images of cells digitally and present the same for analysis. The systems need an expert technician to approve and review pre-classifications. Then, the systems store these images in digital form.
The user can still share images with this option remotely, with other lab technicians and clinicians, and also stores images for reference.
The recent advancements in blood test analyzers come with AIM or Automated Intelligent Morphology technology.
These instruments are using to review slides in low power and categorize white blood cells.
The software can also review platelet counts and characteristics of red cells.
What do the results mean?
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) – This parameter measures the average size of red cells. Red cell distribution width (RDW) - This value indicates how much variation exists in the size of individual red cells. Therefore, the higher the RDW, the more variation in size.
Hemoglobin level (g/dl): Hemoglobin levels indicate whether you're healthy or not. If your hemoglobin level is below 11 g/dL, you probably need to get tested again soon.
Platelets: Platelets help prevent bleeding by forming clots in smaller vessels. Low platelet counts increase your risk of bleeding.
Erythrocyte Index (or EI): It's a measure of the amount of hemoglobin inside each red cell. Anemia increases the percentage of erythrocytes, while hyperleukocytosis decreases the percentage.
Leukocyte Differential Count: Leukocytes include all white blood cells except red blood cells. They help fight infection.
Neutrophils: Neutrophils are one type of leukocyte. These cells defend against bacteria.
Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes produce antibodies that attack foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.
Monocytes: Monocytes help clean up tissue damage.
Basophils: Basophils release histamine when they encounter allergens. Histamines cause inflammation.
Eosinophils: Eosinophils protect us from parasites, like worms.
Thrombocytes: Platelets make it possible for your body to stop bleeding.
How to interpret the result?
Reticulocyte Count: Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells. It represents the number of new red blood cells being produced by the bone marrow.
Immature Reticulocyte Fraction (IRF): Immature reticulocytes account for about 10% of total reticulocyte population. It is used to evaluate the degree of bone marrow activity.
Iron Stores: Iron stores reflect iron status in the body.
Ferritin: Ferritin is a protein found in the liver and spleen that helps store iron.
Transferrin Saturation: Transferrin saturation indicates how well the body uses iron.
Ceruloplasmin: Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing protein. It helps transport oxygen through the bloodstream.
Ferritin Index: Ferritin index is calculated by dividing ferritin by transferrin.
Along with considering the core technology of analyzers, here are some other factors to consider, varying from one instrument to another –
Fig: Why Use Lab Me Analytics
Automation and Robotics
Any of the desired analyzers should be compatible with the current track.
The Improved Patient Experience
Another consideration of Lab me is a clear communication. Our digital platform, which has proven patient experience, finally drives retention among all the analyzers. This is also the power base of End to end digital Patient experience and Integrated Payment System. Also, patients can leave their feedback.
Stay Connected Always With The Application
Our application is easy to navigate. Also, It lets you stay connected at all times. You can see and manage the reports anytime at any place.
Reduce the cost
The software helps you and reduces the cost of your multiple blood tests and its analysis.
With the random access capabilities, analyzers mean to place STAT samples on the analyzer and they don’t have to run with batch. After completing the STAT sample, the analyzer will get back to process routine samples. Similarly, all of the analyzers have a random capacity and it is very vital in the acute setting.
Is it connected to the archiving system? If you want to install the archiving program, how it will affect the flow of the sample in your lab and do you have space for it?
Downtime and maintenance
A backup analyzer may need to allow you to process samples during the downtime which has not been scheduled. In case of having just one analyzer, you should determine how to manage the schedule and maintenance downtime.
Throughput requirements should be determined about your lab. One can configure the modular analyzers to meet almost any requirement and it wouldn’t be mandatory to procure analyzer with capabilities that are beyond the needs of the department. It is still wise to future-proof any analyzer to ensure that the analyzer can meet the demand over the next couple of years or duration of the term of the analyzer.
Quality Control Analyzer
While a lot of analyzers are providing some kind of quality control management. Similarly, it might be ranging from common Quality Control data retrieval and storage to provide real-time solutions for data sharing.
All of the high-throughput analyzers are closed-tube/cap piercing samples. Therefore, if an analyzer lacks this kind of functionality, it is very vital to consider the effect that it will have on the operator.
Lab Me Analytics helps in exploring and understanding blood work results and other blood reports, too.
It is a comprehensive solution for reliable, efficient, and modern blood test results history.
This software can explain the meaning of every test and what it is checked for.
This application has been designed to help patients and doctors to spot some signs on the lab report and get blood test results explained.
It can help you keep a detailed log of lab test and to keep track of time. Therefore, it is the best way to help your doctor to interpret your test results.
This software interprets what such types of blood levels mean for your medical status and health. As a result, Lab Me Analytics is a valuable lab test analyzer.
This software can keep track of normal lab values of patients in the lab test. As a result, it can help you insert short demographics of patients and to update it.
Lab Me Analytics vs. Others
The software can display the default units of reference ranges of the lab test. Also, it generates the quantitative result. Along with reference ranges, the units of measurement in the laboratory may vary according to the lab.
With the help of this tool, you can easily adjust units if measurement and reference ranges. Hence, you can easily review and generate lab test report which will interpret important results which are out of reference range.
Lab Me Analytics
You can understand your blood tests by just scanning your lab report within the reasonable cost with longtime membership plan.
Other blood work analyzers work the same, but results may not be so accurate. Their cost may be higher even for a short-term plan.
You don’t have to face any uncertainty and confusions. Get the access of multiple test reports and recommendation from our experts
There is no guarantee about accurate interpretation. In addition, there are some limitations to access the reports within the plan
Lab.me works on machine intelligence technology for precision.
No other application can work the same.
We have connections with over 600 doctors for a quick expert opinion.
There is no such possibility in the case of others.
It is very vital to determine the key information which should be obtained from the lab analysis through a smart system like Lab Me Analytics. Get detailed cellular analysis with machine intelligence and various smart algorithms to improve productivity and efficiency.
For more information, please visit Lab.me. Your all blood test report will be at one place with 100% accuracy, affordable price, and with minimum time spend.
ASCVD means atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, or in other words, heart disease.
ASCVD, or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is caused by plaque buildup in arterial walls and refers to the following conditions:
•Another type of heart disease, Coronary heart diseases (CHD), such as myocardial infarction, angina, and coronary artery stenosis > 50%.
• Cerebrovascular disease, such as a transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, and carotid artery stenosis > 50%.
• Heart disease is caused by Peripheral artery disease, such as claudication.
• Aortic atherosclerotic disease, such as abdominal aortic aneurysm and descending thoracic aneurysm.
Primary prevention refers to the effort to prevent or delay the onset of ASCVD.
Secondary prevention is the effort to treat known, clinically significant ASCVD and prevent or delay the onset of disease manifestations.
Using a few simple tests we commonly get during routine testing - we can predict the likely hood of dying in the next 10 years. Those four things are:
[caption id="attachment_20141" align="aligncenter" width="300"] Cardiovascular and heart disease awareness Lab Me at home health checks[/caption]
The 10-year calculated heart disease ASCVD risk is a quantitative estimation of absolute risk based on data from representative population samples.
The 10-year risk estimate for "optimal risk factors" is represented by the following specific risk factor numbers for an individual of the same age, sex and race: Total cholesterol of ≤ 170 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol of ≥ 50 mg/dL, untreated systolic blood pressure of ≤ 110 mm Hg, no diabetes history, and not a current smoker.
While the risk estimate is applied to individuals, it is based on group averages.
Just because two individuals have the same estimated risk does not mean that they will or will not have the same event of interest.
Example: If the 10-year ASCVD risk estimate is 10%, this indicates that among 100 patients with the entered risk factor profile, 10 would be expected to have a heart attack or stroke in the next 10 years.
Changing thresholds for high risk
There are many ways to define "high-risk" conditions. Some researchers look at what percentage of patients with a specific condition experience a fatal event. Others look at the years until a patient experiences a fatal event. Still, others look at the age at which a person has a fatal event.
We've chosen to use the high-risk threshold based on our research. Our research shows that a person is at high risk for developing a fatal event after experiencing certain conditions.
Using this approach, we could say that a person is considered at high risk for developing a deadly heart attack if they:
Have had a heart attack before (have survived)
Are over 65 years old
Have smoked cigarettes for 30+ years
Have high cholesterol
Have high blood pressure
Have a family history of premature coronary artery disease
Have a sedentary lifestyle
These criteria are called CHAID rules. They help us identify groups of individuals at higher risk of developing a fatal heart attack.
Other aspects of the SCORE risk charts
The SCORE risk charts are designed to be easy to understand and use. But don't take them too literally.
The chart will give you a general idea of your risk level. It doesn't tell you exactly when you'll develop a fatal event.
When you see your risk score, remember that it reflects your current health status. Your risk scores may change over time.
Your risk score also changes depending on whether you smoke, exercise regularly, eat healthy foods, etc. You can make some improvements to reduce your risk.
You can learn more about improving your risk by visiting our website.
What is the relationship between cholesterol and my risk of a heart attack?
Cholesterol plays a role in the development of heart disease, and atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attacks. About 80% of people with heart disease have high LDL cholesterol levels. High LDL cholesterol increases your risk of a heart attack.
However, not everyone with high LDL cholesterol develops cardiovascular problems. For example, some people with genetic disorders like familial hypercholesterolemia have very high LDL cholesterol but do not develop heart disease.
Some people with high LDL cholesterol may benefit from statin drugs. Statins lower LDL cholesterol and decrease your risk of a heart problem. However, they don't work for everyone.
It's important to note that lowering LDL cholesterol does NOT guarantee you won't get a heart attack. People with low cholesterol often live long lives without getting heart disease
Various Types of Associated Heart diseases
Atherosclerosis is a thickening of the inner lining of large and medium-sized arteries. Arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, carotid arteries, and peripheral arteries. Atherosclerosis reduces blood flow through these arteries and can lead to heart attacks, stroke, and limb amputation.
Heart failure is when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. It usually develops after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Heart failure can also be caused by valvular disorders, congenital defects, infections, and hypertension.
Heart rhythm disturbances such as arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that affect the timing of electrical impulses. These irregularities can cause irregular heartbeat, palpitations, fainting, and even death.
Congenital heart diseases are abnormalities of the heart's structure that are present at birth. Congenital heart disease can be divided into structural and functional conditions. Structural conditions include malformations of the chambers, valves, septa, and great vessels. Functional conditions include hypoplasia, hypertrophy, and dilation of the ventricles.
Congestive heart failure is a clinical syndrome that describes the inability of the heart to fill with or eject blood adequately. Congestive heart failure may occur due to an abnormality of the heart's right, left, or both sides. Causes of congestive heart failure include coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse, pericarditis, endocrine disorders, and systemic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus and amyloidosis.
Cardiac arrest is a state of complete cessation of all cardiac function. Cardiac arrest can result from acute myocardial infarctions, prolonged asystole, severe bradycardia, or pulseless electrical activity. This condition requires immediate treatment to restore circulation and normalize vital functions.
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart pumps insufficient amounts of blood to maintain adequate organ perfusion. Cardiogenic shock often follows myocardial infarcts. Other causes of cardiogenic shock include pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, massive trauma, septic shock, and drug overdose.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an atherosclerotic narrowing of one or more coronary arteries. CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. There are several types of CAD: stable angina pectoris, unstable angina, silent ischemia, and sudden coronary death.
Coronary revascularization is the surgical or medical repair of occluded or stenosed coronary arteries. Revascularization treatments include balloon angioplasty, stenting, bypass surgery, and transmyocardial laser revascularization.
Autoimmune disease is not only scary but, in a sense, a prison. Those reading this are nodding right now. It's like a victim of your exact essence.
Every day is a challenge. What's next? Can I make it work? What about my medications for autoimmune disease? Is my Doctor even right? I could go on and on. Listening to your voice is one of the many reasons we started this company.
And even though the business model pivoted, we stuck with the same idea - graph and benchmark personal blood data.
Love started pouring in. One man in the Philippines, an ex-pat, contacted us through our website, telling us his story about autoimmune disease.
He had been diagnosed with an autoimmune skin disease and wasn't sure how to combat it. However, this guy was proactive and forward-thinking and he took autoimmune disease lightly. He started an excel spreadsheet (yes, our biggest competitor) and started tracking his basic biomarkers monthly.
When & how the magic started
Let me explain. He started adjusting things like high protein vs.. high fat, sleep cycles, sprint vs. walking, strength vs. high intensity, and so on.
The result? He started to figure out, using data, what was shifting the curve toward the positive. Off normal biomarkers? You bet.
Remember that blood is our front-line diagnostics, and just like most things in life - the more complicated we make things, the more we hide from the truth, the basics. The basics tell us what we need to know.
But when the Doctor is taking a snapshot of your bloodwork, telling you what's up from that snapshot, would you bet the farm? Imagine for two seconds, you are an investor, and I say the DJI is down -%200 points. What's your first decision? Sell.
Yet, if you have a graph showing that it's up +5000% and this is just a dip due to some negative news from Trump being Trump - well then - we have a different story.
Autoimmune Disease in Brief
Autoimmune disorders affect millions of Americans every year. These illnesses can cause severe damage to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, joints, skin, eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, nerves, and the digestive tract. They also increase the risk of cancer, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis, depression, anxiety, infertility, and premature death.
Autoimmune diseases are caused by an overactive immune system that attacks the body’s tissues. The most common autoimmune disorder is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It affects about 1% of people worldwide. RA causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, which leads to pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function. Other autoimmune disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), scleroderma, Sjögren syndrome, thyroiditis, type I diabetes, celiac disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and dermatomyositis.
The exact cause of autoimmune disorders remains unknown. However, scientists believe they may be triggered by a combination of genetic factors and environmental triggers. Some researchers think certain infections or other health problems may trigger the development of autoimmunity. For example, some studies have found that infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) increases the risk for MS. Researchers suspect that this virus may trigger the immune response that results in MS. Another possible link between EBV and MS is that both viruses infect B cells. Scientists theorize that when these two viruses infect the same cell, it may lead to an abnormal immune response that damages the brain and spinal cord.
There are several known risk factors for developing an autoimmune condition. People with one or more family members with an autoimmune disorder are at greater risk than those without any family history. In addition, women are twice as likely as men to develop an autoimmune disease. This could be because women produce higher antibodies against their tissue than men.
Genetic factors may also contribute to the development of autoimmune conditions. A person’s genes influence how their immune system responds to foreign substances. Therefore, if someone has inherited a gene mutation that makes them more susceptible to an autoimmune disorder, they will be more likely to develop the illness.
Other risk factors include:
• Being female
• Having a first-degree relative—parent, sibling, or child—with an autoimmune disorder
• Exposure to tobacco smoke
• Infection with hepatitis C virus
• Chronic stress
• Certain medications
• Hormonal changes during pregnancy or after menopause
People with autoimmune disorders often experience symptoms before the diagnosis is made. Symptoms vary depending on the specific organ affected. Common signs and symptoms of autoimmune diseases include:
• Joint pain, especially in the morning
• Swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, knees, elbows, or fingers
• Muscle weakness
• Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs
• Skin rash
• Hair loss
• Eye irritation
• Abdominal pain
• Shortness of breath
• Heart palpitations
• Chest pains
• Loss of appetite
• Weight gain
The symptoms of autoimmune disorders vary from person to person. Some people have no symptoms, while others may experience joint pain, fatigue, fever, weight loss, or other problems. Talk with your doctor if you think you are suffering from an autoimmune disorder. They will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your health history. Your doctor may recommend lab tests to determine if you have any underlying conditions. For example, they may order blood work to check for antibodies against certain proteins that indicate whether you have an autoimmune disease.
A doctor can diagnose autoimmune disorders based on your medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and perform a complete physical exam. They will look for joint damage, muscle weakness, skin lesions, and other abnormalities. Laboratory tests may show high levels of antibodies in the blood. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, ultrasound exams, and bone scans may reveal evidence of inflammation.
Once diagnosed, treatment depends on the type of autoimmune disorder. Treatment options include:
• Diet modification
• Physical therapy
• Support groups
The most common treatments for autoimmune disorders involve taking medication. Many people use anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling and relieve pain. Other medicines used to treat autoimmune diseases include:
In some cases, surgery may help control symptoms and improve quality of life. Examples include:
• Removal of inflamed tissues from joints
• Removing lymph nodes
• Repairing damaged nerves
Some people find relief through diet modifications. These include:
• Eliminating foods that trigger allergic reactions
• Avoiding certain types of fats
Therapy can help restore strength and mobility to muscles and joints. It can also help prevent further injury. For example, physical therapists can teach you exercises to strengthen weak muscles and improve flexibility. They can also teach you ways to avoid injuries while performing daily activities.
Many people find support from others who share similar experiences. You can join support groups online, by phone, or in person. The American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (www.aarda.org) offers information about many autoimmune disorders.
So what's the point?
Over time, he managed to dial in his diet, training, and lifestyle and started winning the battle. His kids, wife, and family benefit. He kept his job he went on to be quite successful. From dirt to dollars, he was using excel and regular blood testing.
Lab Me lets you do that, minus all the extra work without the waiting room. Imagine everything you hate about the Lab, reverse it, and start with Lab Me today.
Heck, write me back and tell me your own kick-ass story like this,, and I'll make sure you are taken care of.
Oh, and PS, don't believe me - contact him yourself by commenting - #labme
Vitamin D Deficiency: Causes, Symptoms, and Biohacks
If you’re always hiding away from the sun, have milk allergies, or live on a strict vegan diet, you may be at risk of having vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is produced by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. It is also found in some foods, such as egg yolks, fish, fish liver oils, and in some grains and dairy products. Vitamin D deficiency is a growing concern.Though generally referred to as a vitamin, vitamin D is a pro-hormone, and therefore not really a vitamin.Unlike other vitamin nutrients which must be taken in through our diet, vitamin D is also synthesized by our body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. A 5-10 minute exposure of our skin to sunlight 2-3 times a week will produce sufficient vitamin D in most people. But since the vitamins break down a bit more quickly, the nutrients supply can run low (especially during winter). Studies have shown that a substantial percentage of the global population has vitamin D deficiency.
What are the Notable Symptoms and Health Risks of Vitamin D Deficiency?
Basic symptoms such as bone pain and muscle weakness may be obvious signs you have a vitamin D deficiency. Symptoms can be subtle for some people. But even if you do not display symptoms, too little quantity of vitamin D can pose health risks. The following can be associated with low blood levels of vitamin D:
Advanced cases of Vitamin D deficiency can result in
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease
Research suggests that the presence of vitamin D in the body plays a role in preventing and treating a number of health conditions, some of which are hypertension, glucose intolerance, type1 and type 2 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.
What could cause Vitamin D deficiency in your Body?
There are a number of reasons why Vitamin D deficiency may occur:If you don't take in required levels of vitamin D - People who follow a strict vegan diet fall into this category because they do not take animal-based vitamin D foods such as beef liver, egg yolks, fish and fish oils, and fortified milk.You have limited exposure to sunlight. The body makes vitamin D every time your skin is exposed to sunlight, therefore, people who are homebound, wear long robes or headgears for religious reasons, have occupations that prevent exposure, or live in northern latitudes may be at risk of vitamin deficiency. If you have dark skin. Melanin reduces the skin's ability to produce vitamin D as the skin is exposed to sunlight. Studies have shown that older adults with darker skin risk having vitamin D deficiency.Your kidneys are unable to convert vitamin D to its active form. The older you get, the less likely your kidneys function to adequately convert vitamin D to act the way it should, thus increasing your risk of having vitamin D deficiency.If your digestive tract is unable to absorb vitamin D adequately. You are in this category if you suffer certain medical conditions, including Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and cystic fibrosis, this can affect the ability of your intestines to absorb vitamin D from the food you ingest.
Obese People. In this case, fat cells extract Vitamin D from the blood, altering the release of the nutrient into circulation. If you have a body mass index of 30 or more, you are likely to have low levels of vitamin D in your blood.
How to Test for Vitamin D Deficiency
The conventional way of measuring how much vitamin D you have in your body is the 25-hydroxy vitamin D blood test in a clinic or hospital. You can also do the test online by simply ordering a lab me the kit, finger pricking at the comfort of your home and posting your kit to them. Results usually show up within 48 hours. Basically, you need to have between 20 nanograms/milliliter to 50 ng/mL to be considered healthy. If you have a level of less than 12 ng/mL, that indicates you have a deficiency.
Vitamin D Deficiency Treatments and Biohacks
To treat vitamin D deficiency, all you need to do is to get more vitamin D, through the right diet and vitamin D supplements. There may not be an agreed required vitamin D levels for optimal health because it varies and depends on factors such as age and health conditions. But generally, if you have less than 20 nanograms per milliliter, you are considered inadequate and would require treatment.The new guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin D to 600 international units (IU) for people between the ages 1-70, and 800 IU for older adults to optimize bone health. There is also a safe upper limit, which is 4,000 IU. Your doctor may prescribe more than 4,000 IU as a corrective measure to a deficiency.People who don't spend much time in the sun or always have their skin covered should consult doctors for vitamin D supplements that serve people with risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.It is advisable to continue taking vitamin D tests as you take the supplements to keep track of your progress. Testing your biomarkers and tracking your progress is quick, easy and affordable.
[Read More: Why Self Tracking Is Important]
Abnormal test results happen - we just hope we can minimize that by allowing the patient to have full control.
Don't just leave your blood work at one time snapshots - understand what they mean over time.
It's crazy to think that at the end of the year many will not have taken a single blood test. Not even a conventional CBC. It's pretty obvious that most people want to live forever. Receiving hundreds of intercom messages every month, Lab Me often gets asked, "what can I do to improve my health and longevity?" We respond simply by saying get a comprehensive blood test done regularly a track the results (graph/analyze). Maybe you don't need to use our services but for the sake of you - do it somewhere. And then take your results and track them. These are the top 10 tests most important for you to track.
Your blood (biomarkers) are the key insight into your bodies machinery. They are the parts and pieces working to keep you alive and healthy and great news! They can be monitored. And now easier than ever. Before this, the process used to require scheduling time with the doctor, driving to the doctor, sitting in a waiting room next to sick people, getting a prescription for the lab, driving home, scheduling with the lab, driving to the lab, waiting in a waiting room next to a screaming baby, get the test done (hopefully they hit the vein the first round), drive home, wait a 4-5 days for a result and then depending on the result you might need to schedule another time with the doctor and repeat.
Now we have a way of doing all of that in about 15 minutes from the comfort of your own home. We save our consumers on average $200 dollars in their time and over 2.5 weeks in time. Add up the costs of the doctors and labs and we save you on average between $175-350 dollars. Add the time saved + total saved in doctors costs, gas, lab fees, and follow-ups and your are keeping $500 dollars in your pocket.
Regular (annual, bi-annual, quarterly) blood testing is the most important step aging adults (and by that I mean 25yr olds and above) can take to prevent life-threatening diseases. With blood test results in hand, you can catch critical changes in your body before they manifest as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, or worse. Having the proper blood tests can empower you to enact a science-based disease-prevention program that could add decades to your healthy life. Think of this as an investor in the stock market - they need historical charts to see trends - same with your blood work. Just a snapshot on the day doesn't tell us if it's improving or getting worse. The old adage holds strong "You can't take a photo of a phone and tell if it's ringing".
We suggest annual testing for those just wanting to keep tabs. They are your typical routine life people. Work, home, sleep, repeat.
Bi-Annual are for those wanting to know a bit more about how part of the year is effecting them and to generate 2x the data for better tracking and faster response. They are usually more aware, health-conscious people - perhaps on a budget - but not super active in the gym or with fitness or strict diets. Plain and simple these people understand that it's important to track.
Quarterly tests are usually are more biohacker types. These people really want to know whats going on, they might change up diets or workouts every quarter or so and want to see how it actually improving them on the inside. Rather than just weight, BMI and other tests that lack the depth that blood is able to provide.
Monthly testing comes down two generally two types of people. Those that are carrying a chronic disease and undergoing treatment or heavy medication and want to see how that's impacting them, Those that are athletic or competition based athletes needing regular data for more precise adjustments of supplements, training or diet. These types of guys are serious but gather insanely robust data.
Sadly though, most annual medical check-ups involve the physician ordering only routine blood tests if blood tests are ordered at all. Far too often, this blood work does not even test for important markers of disease risk. The consequences of failing to analyze blood for proven markers of disease risk can result in needless disability and death. Especially when measured over time and one can see movements trending out of range. Important to track blood testing more than often gets swept under the rug by both doctors being overworked and patients being lazy.
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Blood tests have benefits that go far beyond disease prevention. For example, by monitoring levels of Vitamin D, you can take decisive steps to enhance your quality of life, perhaps by correcting a depressive mental state, fatigue, abdominal obesity, or by improving your memory and energy levels.
1. Chemistry Panel and Complete Blood Count
The Chemistry Panel and Complete Blood Count (CBC) test is the best place to begin your disease-prevention program. This low-cost panel will give you and your doctor a quick snapshot of your overall health. This test provides a broad range of diagnostic information to assess your vascular, liver, kidney, and blood cell status. The Complete Blood Count measures the number, variety, percentage, concentration, and quality of platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells, and thus is useful in screening for infections, anemias, and other hematological abnormalities, while the Chemistry Panel provides information on the status of your cardiovascular system by testing for total cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipo-protein), triglycerides, and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.
The Chemistry Panel also measures blood glucose, which is critically important for detecting early-stage metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Seeing as the endemic of diabetes has grown fast and is here to stay with its relatives called metabolic syndromes, monitoring your fasting glucose levels is as important as knowing your cholesterol level.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme found mainly in your liver. A GGT test is used to check for signs of liver damage or disease. What is its function? GGT plays a key role in breaking down drugs and toxins.
What can cause it to change? High GGT levels can be a sign of liver damage or disease.
If you drink too much alcohol, your GGT levels usually increase. Some drugs, including antibiotics and NSAIDs like ibuprofen, can also increase your levels.
One of the best ways to assess your glucose status is testing for hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c). This test measures a person’s blood sugar control over the last two to three months and is an independent predictor of heart disease risk in persons with or without diabetes. Maintaining healthy hemoglobin A1C levels may also help patients with diabetes to prevent some of the complications of the disease.
Vitamin D is one of the many nutrients our bodies need to stay healthy. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. It's needed to maintain strong bones and a healthy immune system. If you don't get enough you might feel tired, get sick often, have weak bones, and feel anxious or depressed. Test your Vitamin C today.
5. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) (Very Important For Men Only)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein manufactured by the prostate gland in men. Elevated levels may suggest an enlarged prostate, prostate inflammation, or prostate cancer. PSA levels may also be used to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic regimens for prostate conditions.
Elevated levels of PSA may not necessarily signal prostate cancer, and prostate cancer may not always be accompanied by an expression of PSA. Levels can be elevated in the presence of urinary tract infection or inflamed prostate. A PSA level over 2.5 ng/mL, or a PSA doubling time (the time required for PSA value to double) of less than 12 years, maybe a cause for concern.
Read: Some Controversy Around PSA
Your cortisol levels naturally fluctuate throughout the day — they should be highest in the morning and gradually drop so they reach their lowest point at night. With a saliva test, you can collect multiple samples over the course of one day to see if you follow the normal daily pattern.
This test can help you learn if things like sleep problems, low energy levels, low mood, getting sick often, and weight gain might be because your cortisol levels are too high.
Increasingly, medical science is understanding that inflammation within the body can lead to a range of life-threatening degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, macular degeneration, and cognitive decline. By measuring your body’s level of inflammation through regular C-reactive protein testing, you can devise a strategy of diet, exercise, and supplementation to halt many of these conditions.
Read: How To Predict Heart Disease Over The Coming Years!
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation that has emerged as a powerful predictor of coronary heart disease and other diseases of the cardiovascular system. The highly sensitive cardiac CRP test measures C-reactive protein in the blood at very early stages of vascular disease, allowing for appropriate intervention with diet, supplements, or anti-inflammatory therapy. The cardiac CRP test detects much smaller levels of inflammation than the basic CRP test, so is, therefore, able to identify at-risk patients earlier, even among apparently healthy persons.
Secreted by the pituitary gland, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) controls thyroid hormone secretion in the thyroid. When blood levels fall below normal, this indicates hyperthyroidism (increased thyroid activity), and when values are above normal, this suggests hypothyroidism (low thyroid activity). Because the symptoms of thyroid imbalance may be nonspecific or absent and may progress slowly, and since many doctors do not routinely screen for thyroid function, people with mild hyper- or hypothyroidism can go undiagnosed for some time. Undiagnosed mild disease can progress to clinical disease states. This is a dangerous scenario since people with hypothyroidism and elevated serum cholesterol and LDL have an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
Mild hypothyroidism (low thyroid gland function) may be associated with reversible hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol) and cognitive dysfunction, as well as such nonspecific symptoms as fatigue, depression, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation, and weight gain. Mild hyperthyroidism is often associated with atrial fibrillation (a disturbance of heart rhythm), reduced bone mineral density, and nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, heat intolerance, nervousness, insomnia, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations.
9. Testosterone (Free)
Testosterone is produced in the testes in men, in the ovaries in women, and in the adrenal glands of both men and women. Men and women alike can be dramatically affected by the decline in testosterone levels that occurs with aging.
In the serum of both men and women, less than 2% of testosterone typically is found in the free (uncomplexed) state. Unlike bound testosterone, the free form of the hormone can circulate in the brain and affect nerve cells. Testosterone plays different roles in men and women, including the regulation of fertility, libido, and muscle mass. In men, free testosterone levels may be used to evaluate whether sufficient bioactive testosterone is available to protect against abdominal obesity, mental depression, osteoporosis, and heart disease. In women, low levels of testosterone have been associated with decreased libido and well-being, while high levels of free testosterone may indicate hirsutism (a condition of excessive hair growth on the face and chest) or polycystic ovarian syndrome. Increased testosterone in women may also indicate low estrogen levels.
If you would like this test on its own or add to a test kit - just visit our home page www.labme.ai and scroll down to Make It Personalized - click on "Yes, I Want A Custom Kit", our chatbot will walk you through what you want and get you started.
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Like testosterone, both men and women need estrogen for numerous physiological functions. Estradiol is the primary circulating form of estrogen in men and women and is an indicator of hypothalamic and pituitary function. Men produce estradiol in much smaller amounts than do women; most estradiol is produced from testosterone and adrenal steroid hormones, and a fraction is produced directly by the testes. In women, estradiol is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and peripheral tissues. Levels of estradiol vary throughout the menstrual cycle and drop to low but constant levels after menopause.
In women, blood estradiol levels help to evaluate the menopausal status and sexual maturity. Increased levels in women may indicate an increased risk for breast or endometrial cancer. Estradiol plays a role in supporting healthy bone density in men and women. Low levels are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture in men and women as well. Elevated levels of estradiol in men may accompany gynecomastia (breast enlargement), diminished sex drive, and difficulty with urination.
In summary, I would like to say that yearly blood testing is a simple yet powerful strategy to help you proactively take charge of your current and future health. A well-chosen complement of blood tests can thoroughly assess your overall state of health, as well as to detect the silent warning signals that precede the development of serious diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
Read: Tracking Saved This Man From Auto-Immune Disease
Many diseases and disorders are treatable when caught early, but can severely impair the quality and length of your life if left unattended. Identifying these hidden risk factors will enable you to implement powerful strategies such as proper nutrition, weight loss, exercise, supplements, and medications in order to prevent progression to full-blown, life-threatening diseases.
Blood testing can also detect biochemical changes that threaten well-being and quality of life, such as declining levels of sex hormones. Armed with information on important health biomarkers, you and your physician can plan and execute a strategy to help you achieve and maintain vibrant health so go and get your test done.
Best of all, you never need to leave the comfort of your house to perform the test. No more big needles which tend to miss the target quite often, no more awkward nurse conversations, screaming waiting room babies, traffic and major shuffles to your schedule because of family or kids.
Blood work simplified.
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